




Real Analog  Circuits 1
"Real Analog" is a comprehensive collection of free educational materials that seamlessly blend handson design projects with
theoretical concepts and circuit analysis techniques. Developed for university "Circuits" classes by practicing engineers
and experienced educators, Real Analog is centered on a newlywritten 12chapter textbook and features:
 More than 40 video lectures that follow the text, each with downloadable lecture notes;
 Exercises designed to reinforce textbook and lecture topics;
 Homework assignments for every chapter;
 Multiple design projects that reinforce and extend theoretical concepts;
 Worksheets and videos to help students complete design projects outside of the lab.
Design projects use Digilent's $99*
Analog Discovery
and $49*
Analog Parts Kit
that together include everything needed to
build and test a wide variety of analog circuits  the Analog Discovery includes a dualchannel oscilloscope, waveform
generator, power supplies, digital I/O channels and more, and the Analog Parts Kit includes a breadboard, jumper wires,
more than 20 integrated circuits from Analog Devices, and a wide variety of sensors, resistors, capacitors, discrete
semiconductors, and other components.
Real Analog, the Analog Discovery and Analog Parts Kit form the core of a worldclass engineering educational program that
can be used by themselves or in support of existing curricular materials. Students with their own design kits learn more,
learn faster, retain information longer, and have a more enjoyable experience  now every student can take charge of their
education for less than the cost of a textbook!
Note: To see the previous version of Circuits 1 along with the original text, click
here.
* student prices





Click the "Show/Hide" buttons to expand each chapter.






Chapter 1: Circuit Analysis Fundamentals 









Chapter 1 text 

In this chapter, we introduce all fundamental concepts associated with circuit analysis. Electrical circuits
are constructed in order to direct the flow of electrons to perform a specific task. In other words, in
circuit analysis and design, we are concerned with transferring electrical energy in order to accomplish
a desired objective.



Lecture 1 video

Lecture 1 slides 
Course overview, basic circuit parameters, passive sign convention 

Lecture 2 video

Lecture 2 slides 
Power generation & absorption, power sources, resistance 

Lecture 3 video

Lecture 3 slides 
Review, Kirchoff's current law, Kirchoff's voltage law 

Lecture 4 video

Lecture 4 slides 
Circuit analysis examples, series & parallel circuit elements 


Lab 1 video 1 

DMM Usage: Measuring voltage, current, and resistance using a handheld digital multimeter. Using breadboards to implement circuits 

Lab 1 video 2 

Resistors 1: Physical resistors. Nominal resistance values from color codes. Resistance measurement using ohmeters or measured voltage and current. 

Lab 1 video 3 

Dependent Sources: MOSFETs and BJTs as dependent sources.


Lab 1 video 4 

Applications: Concept applications: dusktodawn light and temperature measurement.


Lab 1.1 
1.1 worksheet 
Solderless Breadboards, Opencircuits and Shortcircuits 

Lab 1.2.1 
1.2.1 worksheet 
Independent Power Supplies, Ammeters, and Voltmeters 

Lab 1.2.2 
1.2.2 worksheet 
Dependent Sources and MOSFETs 

Lab 1.3.1 
1.3.1 worksheet 
Resistors and Ohms Law  Resistance Variations 

Lab 1.3.2 
1.3.2 worksheet 
Resistors and Ohms Law  VoltageCurrent Characteristics 

Lab 1.4.1 
1.4.1 worksheet 
DusktoDawn Light 

Lab 1.4.2 
1.4.2 worksheet 
Resistive Network Power Dissipation 

Lab 1.4.3 
1.4.3 worksheet 
Input Resistance 

Lab 1.4.4 
1.4.4 worksheet 
Temperature Measurement System 


Exercise Solutions 

Chapter 1 exercise solutions 

Homework 

Chapter 1 homework problems 

Background 1 

Background material for lab 1.4.4: Resistive Temperature Sensors 









Chapter 2: Circuit Reduction 










Chapter 3: Nodal and Mesh Analysis 










Chapter 4: Systems and Network Theorems 









Chapter 4 text 

In this chapter, we introduce the concept of a systems level approach to circuit analysis. In this type of approach,
we represent the circuit as a system with some inputs and outputs. We then characterize the system by the
mathematical relationship between the system inputs and the system outputs. This relationship is called the
inputoutput relation for the system.



Lecture 10 video

Lecture 10 slides 
Linear systems and superposition, Thévenin and Norton's Theorems 

Lecture 11 video

Lecture 11 slides 
Thévenin and Norton's Theorems & examples, source transformations, maximum power transfer 

Lecture 12a video

Lecture 12a slides 
Derivation of maximum power transfer, Thévenin theorem examples, operational amplifiers 


Lab 4 video 1 

Superposition: Validation of superposition in cases of (a) multiple discrete sources, and (b) single sources with multiple components. 

Lab 4 video 2 

TwoTerminal Networks : Measuring voltagecurrent characteristics of twoterminal networks. Measurement techniques used are introduced in Resistors I and Resistors II videos. 

Lab 4 video 3 

Thevenin's theorem: Experimental validation of Thevenin's theorem. Measurement techniques used are introduced in Resistors I and Resistors II videos.


Lab 4.3.1 
4.3.1 worksheet 
Superposition 

Lab 4.3.2 
4.3.2 worksheet 
Superposition 

Lab 4.4.1 
4.4.1 worksheet 
Twoterminal Characteristics 

Lab 4.5.1 
4.5.1 worksheet 
Thévenin's Theorem 

Lab 4.6.1 
4.6.1 worksheet 
Maximum Power Transfer 


Exercise Solutions 

Chapter 4 exercise solutions 

Homework 

Chapter 4 homework problems 









Chapter 5: Operational Amplifiers 










Chapter 6: Energy Storage Elements 










Chapter 7: First Order Circuits 









Chapter 7 text 

First order systems are, by definition, systems whose inputoutput relationship is a first order differential equation.
A first order differential equation contains a first order derivative but no derivative higher than first order  the
order of a differential equation is the order of the highest order derivative present in the equation.



Lecture 16b video

Lecture 16b slides 
Inductors, introduction to firstorder circuits, RC circuit natural response 

Lecture 17 video

Lecture 17 slides 
RL circuit natural response, general firstorder system natural response, firstorder circuit examples 

Lecture 18 video

Lecture 18 slides 
Forced response of firstorder circuits, active firstorder system examples, step response of firstorder circuits 

Lecture 19 video

Lecture 19 slides 
Steadystate response & DC gain, step response examples 

Lecture 20a video

Lecture 20a slides 
Firstorder circuit step response, introduction to secondorder systems 


Lab 7 video 1 

RC Circuit Natural Response: We create an RC circuit natural response in two ways: by (1) converting the source to an open circuit and (2) converting the source to a shortcircuit. 

Lab 7 video 2 

RC Circuit Forced Response: The step responses of both passive and active firstorder RC circuits are measured. Loading effects on the two circuits are examined. 

Lab 7.2.1 
7.2.1 worksheet 
Passive RC Circuit Natural Response 

Lab 7.3.1 
7.3.1 worksheet 
Passive RL Circuit Natural Response 

Lab 7.4.1 
7.4.1 worksheet 
Inverting Differentiator 

Lab 7.5.1 
7.5.1 worksheet 
Passive RC Circuit Step Response 

Lab 7.5.2 
7.5.2 worksheet 
Passive RL Circuit Step Response 

Lab 7.5.3 
7.5.3 worksheet 
Active RC Circuit Step Response 


Exercise Solutions 

Chapter 7 exercise solutions 

Homework 

Chapter 7 homework problems 









Chapter 8: Second Order Circuits 









Chapter 8 text 

Second order systems are, by definition, systems whose inputoutput relationship is a second order differential
equation. A second order differential equation contains a second order derivative but no derivative higher than
second order.



Lecture 20b video

Lecture 20b slides 
Firstorder circuit step response, introduction to secondorder systems 

Lecture 21 video

Lecture 21 slides 
Secondorder circuit natural response, sinusoidal signals & complex exponentials 

Lecture 22 video

Lecture 22 slides 
Secondorder system natural response, mathematical form of solutions, qualitative interpretation 

Lecture 23 video

Lecture 23 slides 
Secondorder system step response, governing equation, mathematical expression, estimating step response, examples 


Lab 8 video 1 

Second Order Circuit Step Response: Measuring the step response of a series RLC circuit. The measured peak value of the response is compared to analytical expectations.


Lab 8.5.1 
8.5.1 worksheet 
Series RLC Circuit Step Response 

Lab 8.5.2 
8.5.2 worksheet 
Parallel RLC Circuit Response 

Lab 8.5.3 
8.5.3 worksheet 
RLC Circuit Response 


Exercise Solutions 

Chapter 8 exercise solutions 

Homework 

Chapter 8 homework problems 









Chapter 9: Introduction to State Variable Models 









Chapter 9 text 

In this chapter, we will provide a very brief introduction to the topic of state variable modeling. The brief
presentation provided here is intended simply to introduce the reader to the basic concepts of state variable
models, since they are a natural  and relatively painless  extension of the analysis approach we have used in
Chapters 7 and 8.



Lecture 24 video

Lecture 24 slides 
Introduction to statevariable modeling, simulating system response using MATLAB® 


Lab 9 video 1 

State Variable Models: The step response of the state variables of a series RLC circuit are measured. The measurements are compared to the simulated response obtained by using MATLAB®.


Lab 9.3.1 
9.3.1 worksheet 
State Variable Model of Series RLC Circuits 

Lab 9.3.2 
9.3.2 worksheet 
Second Order Circuit Response 


Exercise Solutions 

Chapter 9 exercise solutions 

Homework 

Chapter 9 homework problems 









Chapter 10: Steadystate Sinusoidal Analysis 










Chapter 11: Frequency Response and Filtering 










Chapter 12: SteadyState Sinusoidal Power 









Chapter 12 text 

In this chapter we will address the issue of power transmission via sinusoidal (or AC) signals. This topic is
extremely important, since the vast majority of power transmission in the world is performed using AC voltages
and currents.



Lecture 31 video

Lecture 31 slides 
Sinusoidal steadystate power, instantaneous & average power, reactive power, complex power, power factor 

Lecture 32 video

Lecture 32 slides 
Review: AC power analysis (average & complex power, power triangles, RMS values, power factor), power factor correction 


Lab 12 video 1 

AC Power & Power Factor: An example of the role of power factor in the transmission of AC power. Power factor correction is used to improve the efficiency of power transmission.


Lab 12.4.1 

Apparent Power and Power Factor 


Exercise Solutions 

Chapter 12 exercise solutions 

Homework 

Chapter 12 homework problems 





